For example, a July 1994 NCES strategy document noted, “Education policy makers and analysts now routinely request information about how American schooling compares to that found in other countries . Such studies, in addition to contributing to our understanding of the broader range of possibilities in education, are essential precursors to large-scale studies because they help to identify contextual features of school systems that are common to many countries and can be quantitatively measured.
Similarly, questions raised by counterintuitive findings of large-scale studies are often best explored by smaller scale, targeted studies. All these benefits do not flow automatically from every study.
Hence TIMSS becomes TIMSS 1995, TIMSS-R becomes TIMSS 1999, and TIMSS 2003 will remain TIMSS 2003.
tionship between the practice and desired outcomes in different settings.
Trend data are needed on many aspects of education.
Writing A Rationale For A Research Paper