Co-authors should review and approve the manuscript, at least as it pertains to their roles in the project.
Individuals who meet the criteria for authorship should be included as authors irrespective of their institutional affiliations.
The public’s trust in and benefit from academic research and scholarship relies upon all those involved in the scholarly endeavor adhering to the highest ethical standards, including standards related to publication and dissemination of findings and conclusions.
Accordingly, all scholarly or scientific publications involving faculty, staff, students and/or trainees arising from academic activities performed under the auspices of Yale University must include appropriate attribution of authorship and disclosure of relevant affiliations of those involved in the work, as described below.
This guidance is intended to allow for such variation to disciplinary best practices while ensuring authorship is not inappropriately assigned.
The first author is usually the person who has performed the central experiments of the project.Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for its content.All co-authors should have been directly involved in all three of the following: Some diversity exists across academic disciplines regarding acceptable standards for substantive contributions that would lead to attribution of authorship.Often, this individual is also the person who has prepared the first draft of the manuscript.The lead author is ultimately responsible for ensuring that all other authors meet the requirements for authorship as well as ensuring the integrity of the work itself.Under no circumstance should individuals be added as co-authors based on the individual’s stature as an attempt to increase the likelihood of publication or credibility of the work.For example, heading a laboratory, research program, section, or department where the research takes place does not, by itself, warrant co-authorship of a scholarly paper.To avoid confusion and conflict, discussion of attribution should be initiated early in the development of any collaborative publication.For disputes that cannot be resolved amicably, individuals may seek the guidance of the dean of their school or the cognizant deputy provost in the Faculty of Arts & Sciences.They may be formally defined or simply cultural custom.Incorrect application of authorship rules occasionally leads to charges of academic misconduct and sanctions for the violator.