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Men and women have better visuospatial and verbal memory, respectively.These changes are influenced by the male sex hormone testosterone, which increases visuospatial memory in both genders when administered.
This earnings discrimination is considered to be a part of pollution theory.
This theory suggests that jobs which are predominated by women offer lower wages than do jobs simply because of the presence of women within the occupation.
These factors result in 60% to 75% difference between men's and women's average aggregate wages or salaries, depending on the source.
Various explanations for the remaining 25% to 40% have been suggested, including women's lower willingness and ability to negotiate salary and sexual discrimination.
though it is not clear to what extent this is a biological difference - see Life expectancy.
Men have larger lung volumes and more circulating blood cells and clotting factors, while women have more circulating white blood cells and produce antibodies faster.
Gender inequality acknowledges that men and women are not equal and that gender affects an individual's lived experience.
These differences arise from distinctions in biology, psychology, and cultural norms.
With vertical segregation, occupational sex segregation occurs as occupations are stratified according to the power, authority, income, and prestige associated with the occupation and women are excluded from holding such jobs.
Census data suggests that while some occupations have become more gender integrated (mail carriers, bartenders, bus drivers, and real estate agents), occupations including teachers, nurses, secretaries, and librarians have become female-dominated while occupations including architects, electrical engineers, and airplane pilots remain predominately male in composition.