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The main goal of genetic engineering is to add a new gene into the target organism, to enable it to mimic the trait encoded by the inserted gene.
In 2013, the United States debated whether they should ban prenatal engineering.
The Australian government prohibits germline therapy through the “Prohibition of Human Cloning Act” (Rosario, Knooppers, & Nguyen, 2006).
Cloning is considered a third method of HGE (Annas, Andrews, & Isasi, 2002).
The US Department of Energy genomics divides cloning into three: therapeutic cloning, reproductive cloning, and DNA cloning or recombinant DNA technology (Bledrzycki, 2005).
DNA cloning involves transferring a DNA part from an organism to a genetic element with self-replicating abilities to enable the DNA to undergo self-replication in a foreign host cell (Annas et al., 2002). It has the capacity to eradicate the development of disease processes.
The gene mutations can arrest diseases like cystic fibrosis, cardiac diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Genetic Engineering can increase the life span of the human population.
Scientists argue that by use of genetic modification, the average range of human life span could be increased to anywhere from 100 and 150 years because the modifications can lead to a deceleration in aging process (Bledrzycki, 2005).
As a result, the human population may be susceptible to unknown forms of diseases or even viruses, and this may lead to the extinction of the human population on earth (Simmons, 2008).
The laws regulating and governing human genetic engineering differ from one country to another.